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Vol 89 No 1 - January 9, 2012

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1902 Visit to Indianapolis

Presented By: Dr. Bill Dick, Scientech Club Historian

Bill Dick

Dr. Bill Dick

Bill began by telling us about his use of Google Books, thus making a connection to the last speaker's presentation in December 2011, which recounted computer and technical advances over time. He made reference to an article which he found in the Indiana Medical Journal of October 1902. That article was the best one in describing the medical aspects of Theodore Roosevelt's (TR) injury. Bill became interested in the topic after reading about it in TR, written in 1997. It turns out that the description of the therapy in that book was incorrect.

Theodore Roosevelt assumed the presidency in September 1901 after the assassination of President McKinley. TR was the first President to campaign for his party in the mid-term elections. On a trip in September 1902, an accident occurred which involved the President. More on this later…

TR was quite a naturalist as a youth. He knew birds very well and stuffed and mounted them himself. Some are still on display at the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. He wrote nature articles for periodicals and went on to write a total of 45 books. He was a friend of John Burroughs (naturalist), Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. Forest Service) and John Muir (founder of the Sierra Club). From 1901-1909, Roosevelt created 150 national forests, 51 bird reservations, four national game preserves, six national parks and 18 national monuments, including Muir Woods in 1908. During his presidency, in addition to the conservation of lands, TR helped save college football in 1905, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 and presided over the construction of the Panama Canal.

Let's return to our main story, the injury to President Roosevelt. TR was traveling from Springfield, MA where he spoke to 70,000 people. On the way to the next stop, the Presidential landau, pulled by four grey horses, was struck by an interurban train. Six people were in the carriage; most were injured and Secret Service Agent William Craig was killed. Roosevelt sustained a deep calf bruise.

That wound continued to worsen in the following three weeks during his political travels until the President reached Detroit. There he spoke to veterans and Clara Barton was in the audience. His leg hurt so much that he had to lie down. The next day, September 23, found TR in Indiana where Senator Beveridge met him in Noblesville. Word was sent by telegram that one of the President's group had an ailment. The President then headed to Indianapolis to speak to the Spanish War veterans. After a parade around Monument Circle, the 17 carriages arrived at Tomlinson Hall (west end of current City Market) in order for him to speak to 4,000 people.

Subsequently, a luncheon was held at the Columbia Club with 80 people. After lunch Roosevelt spoke to the large crowd on the Circle from the Columbia Club balcony. Then he was secretly taken to St. Vincent Hospital at the corner of South and Delaware Streets, where five physicians examined him. With TR on the trip were Drs. George A. Lung and J.J. Richardson of the Navy. Indianapolis physicians Drs. George H. Oliver, Henry Jamison and George J. Cook, along with interns Dowd and Mace and head nurse Sister Mary Joseph were in the operating room. After topical ethyl chloride anesthesia, two ounces of clear serum were aspirated. There was a pustular folliculitis around the swollen wound.

Roosevelt recuperated for a few hours at the hospital, and then was placed on a special train to Washington, D.C. But therapy to the leg was not finished. One week after the surgery in Indianapolis, TR underwent further surgery (one of the Indianapolis physicians predicted that). Local cocaine anesthesia around the wound was used. The surgeon general of the Navy, Dr. Presley M. Rixey, assisted by an orthopedic surgeon, drained the abscesses and opened the wound all the way down to the tibia.

The President was moved to his summer home at Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, N.Y., where he lived after his term as President was finished. The leg never really fully healed and he was plagued by pain and infections the remainder of his life. In December 1918 Roosevelt was hospitalized for three weeks in NYC after suffering a pulmonary embolus (blood clot in the lungs). He was thought to have made a complete recovery and he worked at his home writing memoirs. The anticoagulant IV heparin did not enter clinical trials until 1935 and oral dicumerol did not come to market until 1941. On the evening of January 5, his local physician, Dr. George W. Faller, made his usual visit at 8 pm. The nurse and TR's wife both later checked on him but at 4 am, his servant, James Amos, found him dead in his bed. The cause was pulmonary embolism.

Coachman George Lee, who had been with Roosevelt since his White House days, struggled to contain his emotions. Lee was heard to say, "I have lost the best friend that I have ever had, and the best friend any man ever had."

Click HERE to view the Power Point slides used in this talk

Notes by the speaker

Vol 89 No 2 - January 16, 2012

Israel: A Start Up Nation

Presented By: Dr. Robert Zalkin, Cantor Emeritus, Congregation Beth-El Zedeck

Robert Zalkin

Dr. Robert Zalkin

Today's speaker was Dr. Bob Zalkin who began his career as a mathematician in the Pentagon as the age of 25. He then made a major career change, and entered the Jewish Theological Seminary in liturgy and music, and as a cantor shares the duties of the rabbi in pastoral responsibilities. His past also includes being a psychotherapist, and was the founding president of the Indiana Association of Mediators. He holds an honorary doctor of music and is a Sagamore of the Wabash.

Bob provided the club with what he calls the economic miracle Israel, and how it came about. The country of Israel would fit into the state of Florida eight times.

Bob shared a number of stories about the level of innovation that has come from Israel. One story was about a very small company that advised EBay and PayPal on how to determine which customers may be trying to defraud the company. It was a simple rule: The good guys leave foot prints, while the bad guys don't leave footprints. A quick search on Google on a name is a good first step in this research project.

Bob shared a number of reasons why he feels that Israel has succeeded in its short 70-year history. The first reason is "chutzpah," practiced everywhere in Israel. It is the way university students speak to their professors, employees challenge their bosses, sergeants question generals and clerks second-guess government ministers. There is no inhibition in challenging the logic behind the present way. This is not seen as unvarnished, intimidated, and an undistracted attitude. To have chutzpah you must be brazen, have guts, be arrogant, question everyone why and never take no for an answer.

Bob feels that another reason is that nearly everyone in Israel serves in the military for at least 2-3 years. Then for 5 years, they are in the active reserves, which lasts for 30 days every year. History shows that the entrepreneurs in Israel come from its highest ranking military officers.

Failure is not criticized if that failure is an intelligent failure. The fear of loss trumps the desire for gain. The most comfortable approach is to dare.

How do the people of Israel survive in the land where war is always just around the corner? Bob feels that the sense of optimism in their way of life. One individual that Bob met said, "Do what we have to do and then sleep at night. Do not despair."

Bob ended his presentation with a song in the native language of Israel telling a story about the freedom of their people, tomorrow, or maybe day after tomorrow

Notes by Hank Wolfla

Vol 89 No 3 - January 23, 2012

Outsourcing to China, Many Bads, One Good

Presented By: Dick Garrett

Dick Garrett

Dick Garrett

Dick Garrett is a member of the Scientech Club. He graduated with a Bachelor's degree from Purdue University from which he obtained a Master's degree as well. He then obtained a PhD Degree from Northwestern University. He was a Corporate Systems Reviewer with Eli Lilly for 27 years. He then taught at the Kelley School of Business.

Dick spoke about the situation involved with outsourcing manufacturing jobs overseas, particularly to China. He has been involved with corporate decisions to purchase parts from overseas. He used, as an example, the problems facing the Sunbeam Corporation as it pertained to the making of the common kitchen electric mixer.

Dick had purchased a mixer in 1960 when he was first married for $14. In the mid-eighties that mixer sold for $34.83. Sunbeam got notice that a competitor was selling a similar product for 15% less, and had to cut costs. They did this by outsourcing some of their electric motor parts to China after a make-versus-buy analysis. Once you start doing this, you start a death spiral by having more and more parts made in China because of certain fixed costs which get worked into the decision of whether to make or buy.

The reason that companies are able to make money by outsourcing is that labor cost in China is much lower than in the States. The total labor cost in the U.S. is on average $34.74/hr. while in China, skilled urban workers get $3.23/hr. Offsetting this differential to some extent is the fact that US workers are 11 times more productive due to heavy use of technology. China has 100,000,000 people unemployed, and has no incentive to modernize their procedures. Also on the positive side of the ledger is the cost of shipping, cost of corruption, non-transparency of Chinese businesses, etc.

Also on the negative side of the ledger is the loss of jobs in the US. Between 2001-1009, 5.5 million jobs have been sent overseas.

On the positive side of the ledger is the decrease in cost on the basis of the low cost of manufacturing overseas. The same mixer that Dick bought in 1960, with the cost of inflation added in, should be $109 in current dollars. Instead, the current cost of the mixer is $5.87 at Wal-Mart. This lower cost for manufactured goods saves on average $1000/year for each American consumer. This does come at a high cost of job loss in America.

Dick is not pessimistic, however, as he sees a closing of the wage gap with skilled labor at least. He notes that wages in China are increasing 20% per year. Taking the high productivity of the American worker into account, as well as the probable decline in the US Dollar, he feels that the current wage gap is only about $10/hour, and this should close over the next 3-10 years. In fact, a number of companies have begun resourcing jobs back into the States. His advice is "Buy American when possible."

Click HERE to view the Power Point slides used in this talk

Notes by Bill Elliott

Vol 89 No 4 - January 30, 2012

Motorsport Engineering and Education

Presented By: Pete Hylton, Associate Professor, Director of Motorsports Engineering, IUPUI

Pete Hylton

Pete Hylton

Today's speaker, as introduced by member Joe Abella, is recognized as being an expert in motorsport engineering. A native of Indianapolis, Prof. Hylton has spent the last 30 years as a motorsport enthusiast, having written four books and countless magazine and newspaper articles. As a master's graduate from both Rose Hullman and Purdue University in engineering, Prof. Hylton was asked in 2008 to initiate the Motorsport Program now offered at IUPUI. IUPUI is the home of the only Motorsport's Engineering Bachelor of Science degree offered in the United States. Italy and England offer programs, but Indiana's is the only one offered in the U.S. Although the Dean of Engineering had never watched a single motor sport race, he was visionary in initiating the program that awards a Purdue University diploma. At IUPUI there are 16 Indiana University schools and 2 Purdue University schools, engineering and technology.

The vision for the Motorsport Program is to produce the next generation of motorsport leaders for the United States. Most of the motorsport engineers are now employed from the United Kingdom and this program wants to change that to the United States. The school wants to provide support for motorsport engineering for undergraduates and for the faculty to conduct research. They also seek to offer experiential learning opportunities. In other words, racing teams want to hire people who have had hands-on "doing" experience.

To date, the students at the school enrolled in the Motorsport's Engineering Program have designed and built three race cars and three go carts. The first car designed and completely built by students was a 1969 MGB-GT. When they first acquired the car, the driver could sit in his seat and place his feet on the garage floor. Every aspect of the car was designed by students, from the roll cage to the suspension and brakes. The students also make up the crew and drivers on the teams when they compete with their cars. They have won three of the last four Purdue University Grand Prix, set the track record twice and won last year's Electric Vehicle Grand Prix at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. They were the first student team to ever be invited to an SCCA national event.

The students were able to design and build a second car by creating a new technical manual for a manufacturer in exchange for parts at cost. Although the students are not able to afford to design and build a formula racecar for every competitive year; they are working on their car for 2013.

Several of their students have worked for Indy car teams like Sarah Fisher, Indy Lights teams and the Indy Racing League as officials. Since NASCAR is headquartered in North Carolina, the students have not been as involved in NASCAR and drag racing. They have done some work for Don Schumacher in redesigning the top fuel chassis. With just the right amount of stiffness in the bowing and twisting action, the students were able to help set the fastest 1,000-foot time in drag racing history, zero to 350 mph in 1,000 feet in under 3.5 seconds. A final accomplishment for the students has been organizing and officiating a race series for the U.S. Auto Club, the Elite Series.

Prof. Hylton's latest research has been in crash energy analysis. He is examining the Hans device (head and neck support), driver restraints and safer barriers for the tracks. He seeks to provide more safety for drivers, teams and spectators, and to begin student interest in using motor sport's principles of energy absorption by initiating a middle school and secondary school program requiring students to design an egg carrier that protects the egg during a crash.

The key to the longevity of motor sports in general is to focus on learning from accidents like the one that killed driver Dan Wheldon. Working to improve the performance and safety of the sport will continue to advance racing and motorsports. The students who enter the program at IUPUI must demonstrate a passion and dedication to this sport in order to successfully complete their degree.

Notes by Veronica Foote

Vol 89 No 5 - February 6, 2012

The Condition of Indiana's Infrastructure

Presented By: Michael Wenning, Project Manager, American Structurepoint, Inc

Michael Wenning

Michael Wenning

Our presenter today was Michael Wenning, Project Mgr., American Structurepoint, Inc. Michael graduated from Purdue as a civil engineer in 1981 and has served in the Coast Guard. He is a Registered Engineer and is Treasurer of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Michael presented a 2010 Report Card on the status of Indiana's infrastructure. This grew out of a national study done by the ASCE for 2009. From the introduction: "Civil Engineers are stewards of the nation's infrastructure… Inherent in that responsibility is the obligation to periodically assess… report… and advise steps necessary for its improvement."

The methodology assessed condition, funding, operation/maintenance, public safety and resilience (ability to cope if unserviceable). Areas of expertise studied were aviation, waste water, drinking water, rail, dams, roads and bridges.


Infrastructure Grades

Letter grades from A to D- were assigned. Overall Indiana rated D+ vs a national grade of D. On a world-wide ranking, in 1999 the U.S. ranked 4th, but by 2009 had slipped to 16th.

A few of the highlights:

Aviation: Overall, Indiana was in pretty good shape with a grade of C.

Wastewater: D- with CSO's (Combined Sewer Overflow) serving 40% of Hoosiers being the biggest issues. (Indianapolis's "Big Dig", which was a presentation last year, is addressing the biggest.) The EPA has negotiated Long Term Control Plans with at least 10 communities. The ARRA (Obama Stimulus) met only half the need.

Drinking Water: D+ with 97% of systems relying on ground water which can be compromised by CSO's.

Rail: D+ with main issue being accidents at grade level crossings. Goal is upgrade 80/yr (vs. 35).

Dams: D- with only 15% of 240 High Hazard Dams having Emergency Action Plans.

Roads: C- with local roads being the issue due to maintenance and narrow lanes (9' vs 12' on interstates). Some counties are returning to gravel for reduced maintenance cost. State roads would rate A by themselves.

Bridges: C+ (vs C nationally) with 22% being structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The goal is to reduce this to 15% by 2020. Loads today, in general, are much heavier.

The general theme was that lack of funding was allowing current infrastructure to deteriorate and that there will be long-term financial and quality of life consequences. ASCE commissioned an independent group to assess these costs. They forecast that by 2020 each American family will be impacted by $1060/yr. for deteriorating surface transportation and $900/yr. by water and wastewater infrastructure issues. The necessary investment to avoid these costs is much less.

Raising taxes is always unpopular and the property tax relief in Indiana only exacerbates the funding shortfall. The favored funding mechanism is increased user fees. To give some perspective: the average motorist in Indiana pays only $124/yr. in Indiana gas taxes and $125 in federal gas taxes. In 1993 the Indiana gas tax was 18 cents when a gallon was $1.74. Today, it is still 18 cents. Furthermore this revenue source is decreasing with higher fuel efficiency and fewer miles driven.

Michael suggests that Representatives and Senators need to be made aware of the issue. Since most issues are local, though, he also recommends local voter referendums as a promising approach.

Further information is available at:

ASCE Report Card

Failure to Act Economic Studies

Indiana Section, ASCE Home Page

Click HERE to view the Power Point slides used in this talk

Notes by John Peer

Vol 89 No 6 - February 13, 2012

Yosemite National Park: An Illustrated History

Presented By: Lou Stanley

Bill & Lou Stanley

Bill & Lou Stanley

Scenic Tour

The presentation began by taking a beautiful scenic tour of the park including Yosemite Valley, Mariposa area to the south and Tuolumne area to the north, along with a short geologic history of the park and, finally, comments on painters and photographers who have captured the park's natural beauty.


Yosemite Valley

Yosemite National Park is located in the Sierra Nevada mountain range due east of San Francisco, CA. Entrance to the park can be from the south through the Wawona tunnel or a western entrance which follows the valley of the Merced River. Viewpoints at both entrances provide a view of the major features of the valley, including the 617-foot Bridal Veil Falls, one of many park waterfalls, which leaps into the valley from a sheer precipice.

Half Dome

Half Dome

The 8100-foot Sentinel Dome is noted for its 360 degree view including El Capitan, Yosemite Falls and Half Dome. It was also noted for a lone pine tree which was first photographed in 1867 but died in a recent drought. Not far from Sentinel Point is Taft Point where a person's fear of heights can be sorely tested. The viewpoint is nearly 4000 feet above the valley- straight down. Farther along, a short trail leads to the Glacier Point viewpoint in front of the massive Half Dome. Here, the main valley divides going north to Tenaya Canyon or to the Merced River Canyon with the towering Vernal and Nevada Falls.

In the valley, the 3000-foot sheer face of El Capitan is a mecca for serious rock climbers. The most popular and historically famous climbing route is up The Nose, which follows the massive prow to the peak. The Nose was first climbed in 1958, taking 47 days, over an 18 month period. The current record for speed-climbing the Nose is 2 hours 36 minutes. Farther up the valley is Cooke Meadow and from here the Yosemite Falls are very visible. Yosemite Falls have three sections-Upper, Middle and Lower. It is the tallest waterfall system in America. The total drop of 2425 feet from the top of the upper falls to base of the lower falls makes Yosemite Falls the sixth highest waterfall in the world.

Park Amenities

Ahwahnee hotel - $502/night
Yosemite Lodge - $222/night
Camp Curry - $117/night.

Outside the Main Valley

South of the main valley is the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoia trees which includes the Grizzly Giant truncated by a lightning strike at only 210 feet tall. This tree is 2700 years old and is the 25th largest tree in the world. North of the valley the Tioga Pass Road leads past the Tuolumne Grove of sequoias and several scenic lakes.

Ancient Geological Development

More than 115 million years ago the oceanic Farallon plate collided with the Continental plate and was forced downward as the Continental plate moved westward which formed the huge Sierra Nevada batholith. By 65 million years ago the batholith had been worn by erosion to a range of low, rolling hills. About 10 million years ago the Sierra was uplifted causing the Merced River to deepen its bed. Waterfalls began to develop. At the beginning of the Ice Age, 1-2 million years ago, strong uplifting pushed the Sierra Nevada up to its present height of 14,000 feet. The Merced River accelerated to a torrential speed, rapidly cutting a steep, walled inner gorge. The final sculpting of Yosemite Valley was done by glacial ice during the Ice Ages.

Yosemite has been a favorite subject of photographers; including Charles Weed, Ansel Adams, and Galen Rowell; and of artists; such as Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran.

Click HERE to view the Power Point slides used in this talk.

There are many videos on the Internet about Yosemite. Here are a few that may be of interest:
Climbing Half Dome
Time Lapse Tour of Yosemite
Horsetail Falls Firefall
Bridal Veil Falls

Notes by Jim Bettner

Vol 89 No 7 - February 20, 2012

New Directions in Medical Education in Indiana

Presented By:Dr. Paul Evans, DO, VP and Dean, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Paul Evans

Dr. Paul Evans

Dr Evans presented an interesting discussion regarding the creation of a new osteopathic medical school at Marian University, the first new medical school in the state in over 100 years. He dealt with the need of a new medical school, what is osteopathic medicine and what are the differences between DO and MD physicians, the plans for Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, and how the new school will affect the city and state.

The need for physicians will exceed capacity to produce new doctors at today's output. There are mismatches in primary care versus specialist distribution. The physician population is changing because of specialty selection, work hours and earlier retirement of physicians. The elderly population is increasing and families with children under 18 years of age are decreasing. Physician visits for those over 65 are sharply higher. The United States currently has a much lower physician to population ratio than most other industrialized nations. The first year medical student enrollment per 100,000 population has declined since 1980. Adult primary care physicians are likely to retire at a greater rate than the number entering within the next few years. Taking all this into account we may be facing a shortage of 160,000 primary care physicians by 2025.

Why are physicians not selecting primary care. The factors that negatively influence primary care selection are high student debt, decreasing fees for primary care, lower salary versus subspecialties, many non procedural encounters are not paid, and less controlled schedules and lifestyles than our younger families have come to expect. Primary care income is far less than other specialties.

Osteopathic Medical Schools produce fully trained, conventional physicians licensed for all facets of medical practice. The differences are emphasis on whole patient philosophy (illness treatment in context of person, family and community), wellness and prevention, and mind-body-spirit approach. There is additional training in osteopathic manipulation, structure intimately related to function, musculoskeletal system more than just motion and support (soft tissues, neural, lymphatics, circulation).

Osteopathic Medicine is growing very fast. In 2010, DO students were 1 in 5 of all medical students and projected to be 1 in 4 by 2015. There are about 30 schools nationwide. It is easier to start a DO school with less emphasis on academic medical center model and no ownership of hospitals. They use community clinical training resources.

Osteopathic Medicine results in a higher percentage of primary care, 41% Family Medicine, 10% General Internal Medicine, 5% General Pediatrics, 4% OB/GYN. A higher percent of practicing physicians, less go into research and a higher percentage practice in rural and underserved communities.

Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine plans its first class August 2013, class size 150, with geographic preference for Indiana residents, its mission is to produce osteopathic physicians for Indiana and surrounding states. They are building a new health sciences building for both COM and School of Nursing. Clerkships will be in communities around the state and they will encourage expansion/new residencies in Indiana.

Affects on Indiana will be from the economic development building project in Indianapolis, $53.5 million construction providing 318 direct jobs and 185 indirect jobs, and hiring faculty, staff (about 60 full and part time) with 600 students when all 4 years are full in 2015. This results in $100 million + total impact with the expansion of Marian University. If 50% of DO graduates stay in Indiana, then there will be 75 new physicians per year starting in 2017.

In summary, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine plans to start in 2013 with 150 students producing the First Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) graduates in 2017. MU-COM goal is to complement existing Indiana medical education by providing osteopathic physicians to address the predicted shortage with the outcome of improving the health of the citizens of Indiana.

Click HERE to view the Power Point slides used in this talk.

Notes by Charles Hamm

Vol 89 No 8 - February 27, 2012

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John Of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta

Presented By:Roger Robison, MD

Roger Robison

Dr. Roger Robison

Dr. Robison is a radiation oncologist having graduated from Indiana University in Bloomington and The Albany Medical College of Union University. He had postgraduate medical training at the Veterans Hospital in Long Beach California, US Public Health Service, and the M. D. Anderson Hospital in Houston Texas.

Dr. Robinson began his lecture showing an image from the movie Maltese Falcon where Sidney Greenstreet asks Humphrey Bogart what he knows about these Knights. Bogart's response was very limited. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) is a Roman Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous, and noble nature. It is the world's oldest surviving order of chivalry. It is widely considered a sovereign subject of international law. SMOM is a modern continuation of the original medieval order of St. John of Jerusalem then known as the Knights Hospitaller. They were founded about 1050 AD to provide care for poor and sick pilgrims to the Holy Land. After the first Crusade in 1099 it became a military order. Following the loss of Christian held territories of the Holy Land to Muslims, the order operated from Rhodes (1310-1532) and later Malta (1530-1798). This came to an end following the ejection of the Order by Napoleon. It survives today with thousands of members, volunteers and medical personnel providing help to the elderly and handicapped, sick, homeless and those with terminal illnesses without regard to race or religion. Members may display the Maltese Cross insignia.


Knights of Malta Flag

Around the year 1048 the order obtained authorization to build a church, convent and hospital in Jerusalem referred to as the order of St. John of Jerusalem. The founder was Blessed Gerard. The Order was granted by virtue of a Papal Bull the right to operate without secular or religious interference and to elect its own officers. The white Maltese cross on a red background remains the symbol today.

When the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell in 1291, the order settled in Cyprus and then later on the island of Rhodes. The order built a powerful fleet and sailed in the eastern Mediterranean fighting for Christendom as in the Crusades in Syria and Egypt. Here the Order was governed by its Grandmaster and Council, minted its own money, and maintained diplomatic relations with other states.

After six months of siege and fierce military combat against the fleet and army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the Knights were forced to surrender in 1523 and left Rhodes with military honors. The Order was without territory until they were granted possession of Malta by order of Charles V with the approval of the Pope. In 1565 the Knights defended the island and contributed to the ultimate destruction of the Ottoman naval power. It was established that the Order should remain neutral in any war between Christian nations. Because of this, The order was forced to leave Malta in 1798 following Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion.

In 1834 the order settled definitively in Rome where it owns property with extraterritorial status. During the First and Second World Wars the Order carried out large-scale hospital and charitable activities. Although its headquarters is still in Rome, it was granted property once again in Malta. Because of its unique history and unusual present circumstances with property in Rome and Malta, the exact status of the order in international law has been subject to debate.

When Malta fell to Bonaparte in 1798 the real Maltese Falcon, a Rhodes icon, was smuggled out to Russia. In 1917 escaping czarists took it to Yugoslavia where it disappeared.

Dr. Robison's lecture was filled with many interesting maps, diagrams and pictures showing the conflict's with the Muslims and the changing boundaries as a result of these conflicts. Click HERE to view them.

Notes by Jim Bettner

Vol 89 No 9 - March 5, 2012

The Indiana Institute For Personalized Medicine

Presented By:Dr. David A. Flockhart

David Flockhart

Dr. David Flockhart

David Flockhart obtained his medical education in Scotland and was director of Georgetown University's Pharmacology and Genetics since 1995. He was recruited to be the director of the newly created Indiana Institute of Personalized Medicine which opened in 2011. He is at present the director of the Institute and Professor of Medicine, Genetics and Pharmacology of the Indiana University School of Medicine.

The main objective of the institute is to study and develop evidence-based scientific techniques of giving patients the right medications. This will be done by studying the interactions of drugs with other drugs, food or herbs, and then targeting the drugs in a personalized way using genetic information obtained from the patient's genomes.

Many adult and elderly patients are on multiple medications which may cause side effects that degrade their quality of life. The medications also may interact with one another and influence the effectiveness of the treatment prescribed. Therefore, there is a need to identify the right medication, individualized to the right patient at the right time.

The challenges to reaching the goal of the institute are many. The major factors are economic in nature: The country is in a recession and it is difficult to find resources to support the ambitious programs. There is difficulty in recruitment and equipment funding. In addition, there is lack of coverage of the uninsured and a decrease in funding from NIH.

Other problems are related to the deficiencies in the sciences, such as the promises unmet by the genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics and deficient pharmacologic products. Lack of an effective electronic medical records system and reimbursement for personalized testing are also challenges to full implementation of the program.

Fortunately, Indiana has a totally integrated electronic medical record system that forms a basis for research in personalized medicine. There is also the biobank of tissue samples for research in breast cancer. With expertise in genomic, imaging and modeling, it is hoped that the Indiana Institute of Personalized Medicine will be in the forefront of targeting medicine in the near future.

With the proper genomic test, the right medicine in the correct amount will be properly given to provide the most effective and specific treatment to the identified illness.

The Indiana Institute of Personalized Medicine will provide the leadership in equipping patients with treatments which ensure better outcome and treatment response. Further information on the Institute may be found on its web site:

Indiana Institute of Personalized Medicine

Click HERE to view the Power Point slides used in this talk.

Notes by Gonz Chua

Vol 89 No 10 - March 12, 2012

Doing Business in China

Presented By: Josette C. Rathbun, CFP, MBA, 1st VP, Investments, Merrill Lynch

Josette Rathbun

Josette Rathbun

Josette C. Rathbun, CFP, MBA, received her MBA in financial planning from California Lutheran University. She has a NYU degree in computer science and a theology degree from St. Mary of the Woods. She is First Vice President, Investments, with Merrill Lynch.

A portfolio of U.S. stocks excludes more than half of the global stock market capitalization. In 2010 U.S. companies made up 33 % of the global stock capitalization and foreign companies made up 67%. Therefore, business in China, India and other nations is important to investing. For that reason, MBA programs send their students to China and/or India. Josette Rathbun studied Chinese business on a trip to Shanghai, the financial capital of China.

There was an Asian financial crisis, which started in Thailand and effected Indonesia and South Korea. The effect in China was not severe and the Asian nations had their financial affairs in order by the time of the 2008-2009 crash. China was able to use its surplus for stimulus while the U.S. had to borrow.

In anticipation of industrial growth, China built super highways to nowhere and Holiday Inns where there was no population. Bullet trains move at over 200 mph(Web Note: Per Wikipedia, the average speed of bullet trains in China is 200 km/hr. About 1/3 of the high speed mileage has a top speed of 300 km/hr - 186 mph. The 19-mile Shanghai Maglev Train, an airport rail link service, averages 149 mph and reaches a top speed of 268 mph).

The growth of business in China has been so large that China is of great importance in global business. In Shanghai, ATUNG was a very large super-store, similar to Walmart which is also in China. American food is there, from Dunkin Donuts to Pizza Hut. VW was the first western auto business to operate in China. It is in a joint venture with the Chinese government. There are 4 VW plants clustered together. Only 5% of Chinese have cars, the most common transportation vehicle is a moped.

Young Chinese who do not do well enough on tests to go to the free colleges work in the factories and live in factory dorms. The recent college graduates earn around $272 per month and the non-college workers earn around $182 per month. However, the rural areas are poor, and most city workers send money home.

A man cannot expect to get married until he has purchased a condo in a high rise. The high rises were built by the government and the condos are sold to individuals.

The media is controlled and few movies are allowed in. Therefore, Disney operates schools that teach children English instead of making movies.

In China, business is linked to social and long term relationships. Many involved with the government became very rich as they took over businesses when the government withdrew.

There are free trade zones, where material can be imported and products shipped out without duty being charged.

Companies she visited made emblems for 60% of the world's cars, made valves for pulp production and made components for televisions and other electronic products. Lilly, Wellpoint and Cummings have made inroads in China.

Notes by Malcolm Mallette

Vol 89 No 11 - March 19, 2012

Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, Then and Now (Tour)

Presented By: Dr. Michael Niemeyer, Chief Medical Officer and Dr. Timothy Pohlman, Professor of Surgery and Director of the Trauma-Intensive Care Program

Guided by: Hillary McCarley, Development Officer, Methodist Health Foundation

Michael Niemeier

Dr. Michael

Hillary McCarley

Hillary McCarley

Upon arrival by bus we were greeted by Kevin Armstrong, President of the Methodist Health Foundation. The tour was coordinated by Hillary McCarley of the Foundation. We were addressed by Michael Niemeyer, Chief Medical Officer and Timothy Pohlman, Professor of Surgery and Director of the Trauma- Intensive Care program. Many other highly competent and very pleasant individuals directed us through three important parts of Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital (IUMH).

Methodist Hospital was founded in 1899 with $4750 collected by the Epworth Methodist group. The hospital can claim many important firsts including the first insulin injection in an inpatient anywhere, first emergency medicine and trauma centers in Indiana, first motorized ambulance service and first Lifeline helicopter service in the state. The first real dialysis in the state was performed at Methodist as well as the first renal transplant and lithotripsy procedure (renal stone crushing by means of ultrasound). The first heart transplant and lung transplant in Indiana were performed at Methodist in the 1980s.

The model of care is directed toward inpatient medicine. The hospital is staffed with intensivists who are trained to care for critically ill patients. These specialists provide round-the-clock in-hospital coverage. In addition there are highly trained physicians and nurses in every specialty providing inpatient care. The hospital with Indiana University provides the only Emergency Medicine residency program in Indiana as well as a Critical Care fellowship.

Methodist Hospital

Methodist Hospital

Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital has developed a hub-and-spoke model with the spokes representing approximately 20 hospitals around the state. The intensivists are available around the clock for consultation requests from any of these hospitals. Many of these physicians are employed full-time by the hospital and this employment pattern is increasing. Eighty percent of medical school graduates expect to be employed by hospitals.



The first part of the remarkable tour included E-Partners where trained intensive and critical care nurses were monitoring remotely with TV images and other electronic monitoring of all patients in Methodist Hospital as well as in the central Indiana satellite hospitals. They had available all of the patient's x-rays, lab results, drugs, vital signs, etc. of these many patients and provided a second set of eyes observing for any needed additions or corrections. This was round-the-clock with the night shift covered by a trained physician. This was truly an electronic marvel.

Operating Room

Operating Room

We then toured a remarkable neurosurgical suite where a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging device serviced two operating rooms to provide precise localization for treatment of brain tumors. Accomplishing complete shielding from ferrous metals required gargantuan efforts including complete surrounding of the rooms with copper. An overhead camera with large screen displays permitted precise position of surgical operations in three dimensions.

Fairbanks Hall

Fairbanks Hall

Finally we visited the Simulation Center in Fairbanks Hall which provided 30,000 square feet of physician and nurse training facilities. There were exact replicas of hospital patient rooms, operating rooms, birthing and treatment rooms and even one room equipped with the body of an EMS ambulance.


Dummy Patient

Many mannequins could be made to talk, cough, sneeze, give birth, present abnormal heart and lung sounds as well as other features to provide life-like training. To promote realism, a member of the team being trained was instructed to secretly make a mistake in the procedure to test the reaction of the rest of the team. These rooms could be closely monitored with one-way mirrors to critique the actions of those in the rooms.

Further information on the Simulation Center may be found on its web site:

The Simulation Center at Fairbanks Hall


Dr Timothy

There was also a lunch-and-learn presentation of Telemedicine by Doctor Pohlman. This included Telestroke and Teletrauma. The Telestroke program is intended to provide small hospitals with often fewer than 25 beds the services of a skilled neurologist. Remote TV monitoring equipment is available whereby the Methodist neurologist can do a complete examination with the exception of touch. This specialist can then provide treatment guidance to thephysician at the local hospital. Early treatment of appropriately selected stroke patients (preferably less than three hours post incident) may prevent a permanently paralyzing stroke. Similar consultation can provided for traumatized patients including when the Lifeline helicopter should be dispatched.

Click HERE to view pictures taken during the course of this tour.

Notes by Jerry Kurlander

Vol 89 No 12 - March 26, 2012

A Historical Perspective on the Chemistry of Steel

The summary of this talk has not been placed on the web site at the request of the speaker.